Probably there will always be a shortage of suitable donor organs to treat the diseases of the different organs. Immunology, genetic manipulation of animals, molecular biology and the science of biomaterials will develop further. Maybe they will be used to cover part of the organ shortage. The transplantation of cells, of artificial organs and probably of animal organs will be possible in the near future. This evolution indicates that transplantation medicine is a field where medical, social, economic and ethical aspects frequently converge.